# Modus Cesaro

Form of a syllogism based on the Modus Celarent, in which a negative existential proposition is inferred from positive and negative universal premisses.

No P is M.

All S are M.

[and there exists at least oneS]*

Therefore, Some S are not P.

For example:

Nocircleis arectangle.

Allsquaresarerectangles.

[and there exists at least onesquare]*

Therefore, Somesquaresare notcircles.

*Modus Cesaro* is the weaker form of the Modus Cesare, which only infers an existential conclusion. Since every *universal quantification* that does not refer to an empty extension set always implies an *existential quantification*, this variation is possible, but this is of course also a weaker statement than the universal conclusion of the *Modus Cesaro*.

## Name

The name “Cesaro” is a mnemonic term that helps to remember the most important characteristics of this mode: The “C” at the beginning indicates that it is related to the Modus Celarent, the “e” and “a” indicate the negative and affirmative universal statements in the premisses and the “o” indicates that the conclusion is a negative existential statement.