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Modus Celaront

Form of a syllogism based on the Modus Celarent, in which a negative existential proposition is inferred from positive and negative universal premisses.

No M is P.
All S are M.
[and there exists at least one S]*

Some S are not P.

For example:

No rectangle is a circle.
All squares are rectangles.
[and there exists at least one square]*

Some squares are not circles.

* Note: When an existential conclusion is inferred from universal premisses, this requires an (implicit or explicit) existential import, i.e. it must be proven that what the term refers to actually exists. In case of the Modus Celaront it is sufficient to prove existence for the minor term (S), as this also implies existence of M, while the conclusion does not rely on existence of P.

Modus Camestros is similar to Modus Cesaro, the only difference is that the terms in the major statement are swapped.

Name

The name “Celaront” is a mnemonic term that helps to remember the most important characteristics of this mode: The “C” at the beginning indicates that it is related to the Modus Celarent, the “a” and “e” mark the affirmative and negative universal statements in the premisses, the “o” a negative existential conclusion.

See also

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Ad Hominem Info is a project to explain and categorize the most common systematic fallacies and fallacies. On this page, you will find a background article that briefly explains an important logical concept, which may be needed to better understand another article in this area.
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